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School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences

Alice O'Toole Publications

 

Peer-Reviewed Publications Book Chapters and Non-Peer Reviewed Publications

 

 

 

 

 

Peer-Reviewed Publications

 

Hill, M. Q., Streuber, S., Hahn, C. A., Black, M. J., & O’Toole, A. J.strong> (2016, in press). Creating body shapes from verbal descriptions by linking similarity spaces. Psychological Scienceem>.

 

Streuber, S. Quiros-Ramirez, M. A., Hill, M.Q., Hahn, C. A., Zuffi, S. O’Toole, A.strong> & Black, M. J. (2016, in press). Body Talk: Crowd-shaping realistic 3D avatars with words. ACM Transactions Graphicsem> (SIGGRAPH).

 

Yovel, G. & O’Toole, A.J. (2016, in press). Recognizing people in motion. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 20 , Issue 5, 383 - 395 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2016.02.005.

 

Hahn, C. A., O’Toole, A.J. & Phillips, P. J. (2016). Dissecting the time course of person recognition in natural viewing environments. British Journal of Psychology, Volume 107(1), 117-135. DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12125

 

White, D., Phillips, P. J., Hahn, C. A., Hill, M., & O’Toole, A.J. (2015). Perceptual expertise in forensic facial image comparison. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 282, 1814-1822. http://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2015.1292

 

Na, J. Kim, S., Oh, H., Choi, I. & O’Toole, A.J. (2015). Facial inferences of competence predict American elections better than Korean elections. Psychological Science, 26(7), 1107-1113. doi: 10.1177/0956797615576489

 

Phillips P. J., Hill, M. Q., Swindle, J. A. & O’Toole, A.J. (2015). Human and algorithm performance on the PaSC Face Recognition Challenge. 2015 IEEE 7th International Conference on Biometrics Theory, Applications and Systems.

 

White, D., Norell, K. Phillips, P. J. & O’Toole, A.J. (in press). Human factors in facial forensic examination. In (Eds. M. Tistarelli & C. Champod) Biometrics in Forensic Science. Springer Verlag.

 

Natu, V. & O’Toole, A.J. (2015). Spatiotemporal changes in neural response patterns to faces varying in visual familiarity. NeuroImage. 108, 151-159. E-publication ahead of print, doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.12.027.

 

Norell, K, Läthén, K. B., Bergström, P., Rice, A., Natu, V. & O’Toole, A. J. (2014) The effect of image quality and forensic expertise in facial image comparisons. Journal of Forensic Psychology. doi: 10.1111/1556-4029.12660.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Natu, V., An, X., Rice, A., Ryland, J. & Phillips, P. J. (2014). The neural representation of faces and bodies in motion and at rest. NeuroImage. 91, 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.01.038.

 

Phillips, P. J. and O’Toole, A. J. (2014). Comparison of human and computer performance across face recognition experiments. Image & Vision Computing, 32(1), 74-85. (Editor’s Choice Review Article).

 

O’Toole, A. J. & Natu, V. (2013). Computational perspectives on the other race effect. Visual Cognition, 21(9-10), 1121-1137. DOI: 10.1080/13506285.2013.803505.

 

Natu, V. & O’Toole, A. J. (2013). Neural perspectives on the other race effect. Visual Cognition, 21(9-10), 1081-1095. DOI: 10.1080/13506285.2013.811455.

 

Rice, A., Phillips, P. J. and O’Toole, A. J. (2013). The role of the face and body in person identification. Applied Cognitive Psychology. 27, 761-768. DOI: 10.1002/acp.2969.

 

Rice, A., Phillips, P. J., Natu, V., An, X., & O’Toole, A. J. (2013). Unaware person recognition from the body when face identification fails. Psychological Science, 24(11), 2235-2243. doi: 10.1177/0956797613492986.

 

O’Toole, A. J., An, X., Dunlop, J.P., Natu, V. & Phillips, P.J. (2012). Comparing face recognition algorithms to humans on challenging tasks. ACM Transactions on Applied Perception. Volume 9 Issue 4, Article 16.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Phillips, P.J., An, X. & Dunlop, J. (2012). Demographic effects on estimates of automatic face recognition. Image & Vision Computing 30(3),169-176.

 

Phillips, P.J., Beveridge, J. R., Draper, B. A., Givens, G., O’Toole, A. J., Bolme, D. Dunlop, J. Lui, Y. M. Sahizada, H. & Wiemer, S. (2012). An Introduction to the Good, Bad, & Ugly Challenge Problem. Image & Vision Computing, 30(3), 177-185.

 

Natu, V. & O’Toole, A. J. (2011). The neural processing of familiar and unfamiliar faces: A review and synopsis. British Journal of Psychology, 102, 726-747.

 

Natu, V., Raboy, D. & O’Toole, A. J. (2011). Neural correlates of own-race and other-race face perception: Spatial and temporal response differences. NeuroImage, 53(3), 2547-2555.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Weimer, S. Dunlop, J. Barwick, R. Ayyad, J. & Phillips, P. J. (2011). Recognizing people from dynamic video: Dissecting identity with a fusion approach. Vision Research, 51, 74-83.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Phillips, P.J., An, X. & Dunlop, J. (2011). Demographic effects on estimates of automatic face recognition. Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition.

 

Phillips, P.J., Beveridge, J. R., Draper, B. A., Givens, G., O’Toole, A. J., Bolme, D. Dunlop, J. Lui, Y. M. Sahizada, H. & Wiemer, S. (2011). An Introduction to the Good, Bad, & Ugly Challenge Problem. Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition.

 

Natu, V. S., Jiang, F. Narvekar, A., Keshvari, S., Blanz, V. & O’Toole, A. J. (2010). Dissociable neural patterns of facial identity across changes in viewpoint. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22(7), 1570-1582.

 

Phillips, P.J., Scruggs, W. T., O’Toole, A. J., Flynn, P. J., Bowyer, K. W., Schott, C. L., Sharpe, M. (2010). FRVT 2006 and ICE 2006 large-scale experimental results. IEEE: Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 32(5), 831-846.

 

Quinn, P. C., Conforto, A., Lee, K., O’Toole, A. J., Pascalis, O. Slater, A. M. (2010). Infant preference for individual women’s faces extends to girl prototype faces. Infant Behavior and Development, 33, 357-360.

 

Phillips, P.J., Jiang, F., Narvakar, A. Ayyad, J. & O’Toole, A. J. (2011). An other-race effect for face recognition algorithms. ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, 8(2), ART14.

 

Barrett, S.E., & O’Toole, A. J. (2009). Face adaptation to gender: Does adaptation transfer across age categories? Visual Cognition, 17(5), 700-715.

 

Jiang, F., Blanz, V. & O’Toole, A. J. (2009). Three-dimensional information in face representation revealed by identity aftereffects. Psychological Science, 20(3), 318-325.

 

Phillips, P.J., Flynn, P. J., Beveridge, R., Scruggs, W. T., O’Toole, A. J., Bolme, D., Bowyer, K. W., Givens, G. H., Lui, Y.M., Sahibzada, H. Scallan, J. Weimer, S. (2009). Overview of the Multiple Biometrics Grand Challange. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Biometrics, 2009.

 

Otsuka, Y., Konishi, Y., Yamaguchi, M., Abdi, H. & O’Toole, A. J. (2009). The recognition of moving and static faces by young infants. Child Development, 80(4) 1259-1271.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Phillips, P.J., Narvekar, A. (2008). Humans versus algorithms Comparisons from the Face Recognition Vendor Test 2006. Proceedings of the 8th IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition.

 

Jiang, F., Blanz, V. & O’Toole, A. J. (2007). The role of familiarity in three-dimensional view transferability of face identity adaptation. Vision Research, 47(4), 525-531.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Abdi, H., Jiang, F. & Phillips, P.J. (2007). Fusing face recognition algorithms and humans. IEEE: Transactions on Systems, Man & Cybernetics, 37(5), 1149-1155.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Jiang, F., Abdi, H., Penard, N., Dunlop, J. P. & Parent, M. A. (2007). Theoretical, statistical, and practical perspectives on pattern-based classification approaches to functional neuroimaging analysis. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19, 1735-1752.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Phillips, P. J., Jiang, F., Ayyad, J., Pénard, N., & Abdi, H. (2007). Face recognition algorithms surpass humans matching faces across changes in illumination. IEEE: Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 29(9), 1642-1646.

 

Jiang, F., Blanz, V. & O’Toole, A. J. (2006). Probing the visual representation of faces with adaptation: A view from the other side of the mean. Psychological Science, 17, 493-500.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Jiang, F., Roark, D. & Abdi, H. (2006) Predicting human performance for face recognition. In (R. Chellappa and W. Zhao, Eds.) Face Processing: Advanced models and methods. Academic Press, pp. 293-320.

 

Roark, D. A., Barrett, S. E., O’Toole, A. J. & Abdi, H. (2006). Learning the moves: The effect of familiarity and facial motion on person recognition across large changes in viewing format. Perception, 35, 761-773.

 

Abdi, H., Valentin, D., O’Toole, A. J., Edelman, B. (2005). DISTATIS: The analysis of multiple distance matrices. Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society: International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. (San Diego, CA, USA).

 

O’Toole, A. J., Harms, J., Snow, S. L., Hurst, D. R., Pappas, M. R. & Abdi, H. (2005). A video database of moving faces and people. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 27(5), 812-816.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Jiang, F., Abdi, H. & Haxby, J. V. (2005). Partially distributed representations of objects and faces in ventral temporal cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17(4), 580-590.

 

Roark, D., Barrett, S. E., Spence, M. J., Abdi, H., & O’Toole, A. J. (2003). Psychological and neural perspectives on the role of facial motion in face recognition. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 2(1), 15-46.

 

Roark, D., O’Toole, A. J. & Abdi, H. (2003). “Human recognition of familiar and unfamiliar people in naturalistic video,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Workshop on Analysis and Modeling of Faces and Gestures, International Conference on Computer Vision, Nice, France.

 

Furl, N., Phillips, P. J., & O’Toole, A. J. (2002). Face recognition algorithms as models of the other-race effect. Cognitive Science, 96, 1-19.

 

O’Toole, A. J. Roark, D. & Abdi, H. (2002). Recognition of moving faces: A psychological and neural framework. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6, 261-266.

 

Cheng, Y., O’Toole, A. J., & Abdi, H. (2001). Sex classification of adults’ and children?s faces: Computational investigations of subcategorical feature encoding. Cognitive Science, 25, 819-838.

 

Leopold, D. A., O’Toole, A. J., Vetter, T. & Blanz, V. (2001). Prototype-referenced shape encoding revealed by high-level aftereffects. Nature Neuroscience, 4, 89-94.

 

O’Toole, A. J. & Abdi, H. (2001). Face recognition models. In N. J. Smelser and P. B. Baltes (Eds.) International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Pergamon, Oxford, p 5223-5226.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Wenger, M., & Townsend, J. T. (2001). Quantitative models of perceiving and remembering faces : Precedents and possibilities. Introduction chapter. In (M. Wenger & J. Townsend, Eds.) Computational, geometric, and process perspectives on facial cognition : Contexts and challenges. Lawrence Erlbaum. pp 1-38.

 

Blanz, V., O’Toole, A. J., Vetter, T. & Wild, H. A. (2000). On the other side of the mean: The perception of dissimilarity in human faces. Perception, 29(8), 885-891.

 

Deffenbacher, K. A., Johanson, J., Vetter, T. O’Toole, A. J. (2000). The face typicality-recognizability relationship : Encoding or retrieval locus. Memory and Cognition, 28, 1173-1182.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Bartlett, J. C. & Abdi, H. (2000). A signal detection model applied to the stimulus: Understanding covariances in face recognition experiments in the context of face sampling distributions. Visual Cognition, 7(4), 437-463.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Phillips, P. J., Cheng, Y. Ross, B. & Wild, H.A. (2000). Face recognition algorithms as models of human face processing. Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. Los Alamitos, CA : IEEE Computer Society Press, pp 552-557.

 

Wild, H. A., Barrett, S. E., Spence, M., O’Toole, A. J., Cheng, Y. & Brooke, J. (2000). Recognition and sex categorization of adults' and children's faces: Examining performance in the absence of sex stereotyped cues. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 77, 269-291.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Price, T., Vetter, T., Bartlett, J.C. & Blanz, V. (1999). 3D shape and 2D textures of human faces : The role of "averages" in attractiveness and age. Image Vision and Computing, 18, 9-19.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Vetter, T. & Blanz, V. (1999). Two-dimensional reflectance and three-dimensional shape contributions to recognition of faces across viewpoint. Vision Research, 39, 3145-3155.

 

Deffenbacher, K. A. Vetter, T., Johanson, J. O’Toole, A. J. (1998). Facial aging, attractiveness, and distinctiveness. Perception, 27,1233-1244.

 

Deffenbacher, K. A., Hendrickson, C., Huff, D. O’Toole, A. J. & Abdi, H. (1998). Manipulating face gender : Effects on categorization and recognition judgments. Journal of Biological Systems, 6(2), 219-239.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Deffenbacher, K. A., Valentin, D., McKee, K., Huff, D., & Abdi, H. (1998). The perception of face gender: The role of stimulus structure in recognition and classification. Memory & Cognition, 26, 146-160.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Edelman, S. & Bülthoff, H. H. (1998). Stimulus-specific effects in face recognition over changes in viewpoint. Vision Research, 38, 2351-2363.

 

Price, T. O’Toole, A. J. & Dambach, K. (1998). A moving cast shadow diminishes the Pulfrich phenomenon. Perception, 27, 591-594.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Vetter, T., Volz, H. & Salter, E. M. (1997). Three-dimensional caricatures of human heads: Distinctiveness and the perception of facial age. Perception, 26, 719-732.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Vetter, T., Troje, N. F. & Bülthoff, H. H. (1997). Sex classification is better with three-dimensional head structure than with image intensity information. Perception, 26, 75-84

 

O’Toole, A. J. & Walker, C. L. (1997). On the preattentive accessibility of stereoscopic disparity: Evidence from visual search. Perception & Psychophysics, 59, 202-218.

 

Valentin, D., Abdi, H., Edelman, B. O’Toole, A. J. (1997). Principal component and neural network analyses of face images: What can be generalized in gender classification? Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 41, 398-413.

 

Abdi, H., Valentin, D., Edelman, B. & O’Toole, A. J. (1996). A Widrow-Hoff learning rule for a generalization of the linear auto-associator. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 40, 175-182.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Deffenbacher, K. A., & Peterson, J. (1996). An “other-race effect” for classifying faces by sex. Perception, 25, 669-676.

 

O’Toole, A. J., & Edelman, S. (1996). Face distinctiveness in recognition across viewpoint: An analysis of the statistical structure of face spaces. Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. Los Alamitos, CA : IEEE Computer Society Press, pp 10-15.

 

Abdi, H., Valentin, D., Edelman, B. & O’Toole, A. J. (1995). More about the difference between men and women: Evidence from linear networks and the principal component approach. Perception, 24, 539-562.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Abdi, H., & Valentin, D. (1995). Face recognition with a neural network. In M. A. Arbib (Ed.) The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks. Cambridge: Bradford Books/MIT Press.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Bülthoff, H. H., Troje, N. F. & Vetter, T. (1995). Face recognition across large viewpoint changes. In (M. Bischel) Proceedings of the International Workshop on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. Multimedia Laboratory, Dept. of Computer Science, University of Zürich.

 

Valentin, D., Abdi, H., O’Toole, A. J., & Cottrell, G. W. (1994). Connectionist models of face processing: A survey. Pattern Recognition, 27, 1209-1230.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Deffenbacher, K. A., Valentin, D., & Abdi, H., (1994). Structural aspects of face recognition and the other-race effect. Memory and Cognition, 22, 208-224.

 

O’Toole, A. J. & Nguyen, T. H. (1994). Neural network simulations of distributed versus interval disparity cell codings. Journal of Biological Systems, 2, 385-399.

 

Valentin, D., Abdi, H., & O’Toole, A. J. (1994). Categorization and identification of human face images by a neural network: A review of linear autoassociative and principal components approaches. Journal of Biological Systems, 2, 413-429.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Abdi, H., Deffenbacher, K. A., & Valentin, D. (1993). Low dimensional representation of faces in higher dimensions of the face space. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 10, 405-410.

 

O’Toole, A. J. & Thompson, J. (1993). An XWindows Tool for synthesizing face images from eigenvectors. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 25, 41-47.

 

O’Toole, A. J. & Kersten, D. J. (1992). Learning to see random-dot stereograms. Perception, 21, 227-243.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Abdi, H., Deffenbacher, K. A., Bartlett, J. (1991). Classifying faces by race and sex using an autoassociative memory trained for recognition. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Lawrence Erlbaum Hillsdale: NJ. (Eds. Hammond K. J., Gentner, D.) pp 847-851.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Deffenbacher, K. A., Abdi, H., & Bartlett, J. (1991). Simulating the “other-race effect” as a problem in perceptual learning. Connection Science: Journal of Neural Computing, Artificial Intelligence, and Cognitive Research, 3, 163-178.

 

O’Toole, A. J. (1989). Structure from stereo by associative learning of the constraints. Perception. 18, 767-782.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Millward, R. B., & Anderson, J. A. (1988). A physical system approach to recognition memory for spatially transformed faces. Neural Networks, 1, 179-199.

 

Kersten, D. J., O’Toole, A. J., Sereno, M. E., Knill, D. C. & Anderson, J. A. (1987). Associative learning of scene parameters from images. Applied Optics, 26, 4999-5006.

 

Howard, J. H., O’Toole, A. J. & Rice, S. (1986). The role of frequency and informational cues in uncertain frequency detection. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 79, 788-791.

 

Millward, R. B. & O’Toole, A. J. (1986). Spatial frequencies and memory for faces. In H. D. Ellis, M. A. Jeeves, F. Newcomb, A. W. Young (Eds.) Aspects of Face Processing. Dordredit: M. Nijhoff.

 

O’Toole, A. J. (1985). A word processing-linked FORTRAN data base of journal and book references. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 17, 126-127.

 

Howard, J. H., O’Toole, A. J., Parasuraman, R. & Bennett, K. B. (1984). Pattern-directed attention in uncertain frequency detection. Perception & Psychophysics, 35, 256-264.

 

Bennett, K. B., Parasuraman, R., Howard, J. H., & O’Toole, A. J. (1984). Auditory induction of discrete tones in signal detection tasks. Perception & Psychophysics, 35, 570-578.

 

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Book Chapters and Non-Peer Reviewed Publications

 

O’Toole, A. J. & Phillips, P. J. (2015). Evaluating automatic face recognition systems with human benchmarks. In (Eds. J. Davis & T. Valentine). Forensic Facial Identification: Theory and Practice of Identification from Eyewitnesses, Composites and CCTV. Wiley-Blackwell.

 

Tistarelli, M., Barrett, S. E., & O’Toole, A. J. (2012). Face recognition, facial expression, and intention detection. In (Eds. Emilio Mordini and D. Tzovaras) Second generation biometrics: The Ethical, legal and social context. Springer Books.

 

O’Toole, A. J. (2011). Cognitive and Computational Approaches to Face Perception. In (Eds. A. Calder, G. Rhodes, M. Johnson, & J. V. Haxby). Oxford Handbook of Face Perception. Oxford University Press, Oxford: UK.

 

O’Toole, A. J. (2011). A comparative examination of face recognition by humans and machines. In (Eds. S. Li & A. Jain). Handbook of Face Recognition (2nd Edition). Springer-Verlag, London Ltd., UK.

 

O’Toole, A. J. & Roark, D. A. (2010). Memory for moving faces: The interplay of two recognition systems. In (Eds. C. Curio, H.H. Bülthoff, M. Giese). Dynamic Faces: Insights from Experiments and Computation. MIT Press, Cambridge: MA.

 

O’Toole, A. J. & Tistarelli, M. (2009). Face recognition by humans and machines. In (Ed. M. Tistarelli, S. Li, & R. Chellappa). Handbook of remote biometrics for surveillance and security. Springer-Verlag.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Abdi, H., Jiang, F. & Phillips, P.J. (2006). Fusing individual algorithms and humans improves face recognition accuracy. In (G. Bebis et al., Eds.) Advances in Visual Computing. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, pp 447-456.

 

O’Toole, A. J. (2004) Psychological and neural perspectives on human face recognition. In (S. Z. Li, A. Jain, Eds.) Handbook of Face Recognition. Springer-Verlag, pp. 349-370.

 

O’Toole, A. J. (2002) Face recognition, psychology and connectionism. In (M. Arbib, Ed.) Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks. MIT Press.

 

O’Toole, A. J. (2002). The psychology of face perception. In The Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. London: Macmillan.

 

Edelman, S. and O’Toole, A. J. (2001). Viewpoint generalization in face recognition : The role of category-specific processses. In (M. Wenger & J. Townsend, Eds.) Computational, geometric, and process perspectives on facial cognition : Contexts and challenges. Larwrence Erlbaum, pp 397-428.

 

Abdi, H., Valentin, D., & O’Toole, A. J. (1997). A generalized autoassociator for face processing and sex categorization: From principal component analysis to multivariate analysis. In (Ed. D. Levine). Optimality in Biological and Artificial Networks? Lawrence Erlbaum.

 

Santrock, J. & O’Toole, A. J. (1997). Text Book Chapter, Methods. In Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior. Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Publishers.

 

Santrock, J. & O’Toole, A. J. (1997). Text Book Chapter, Sensation. In Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior. Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Publishers.

 

Santrock, J. & O’Toole, A. J. (1997). Text Book Chapter, Perception. In Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior. Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Publishers.

 

O’Toole, A. J. (1996). Book Review of Object and Face Recognition, V. Bruce & G. Humphreys, (London: Lawrence Erlbaum), Contemporary Psychology, 41, pp. 1111.

 

O’Toole, A. J., Abdi, H., Deffenbacher, K. A. & Valentin, D. (1995). A perceptual learning theory of the information in faces. (Ed. T. Valentine). Cognitive and Computational Aspects of Face Recognition. London, England:Routledge Ltd.

 

O’Toole, A. J. & Abdi, H. (1989). Connectionist approaches to visually based feature extraction. In G. Tiberghien (Ed.) Advances in Cognitive Psychology, (Vol 2). London: John Wiley pp 1-13.

 

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