Comparison of the movie and manga of Nausicaa

Note: the manga referred to here is the Viz English translation published as"Nausicaa of the Valley of Wind--Perfect Collection Volume 1". The spellings sometimes differ between the film and the manga, and I use a mixture from both, but I try to follow the manga's spelling convention. Also, the old woman in the Valley is referred to as "Oh-baba-sama" which indicates that she is the elder matriarch of the tribe (she is over 100 years old). ("baba" is "grandmother","oh" means "great or exaulted" and "sama" is the honorific you use for someone of higher rank than yourself.) Because "Elder Matriarch"is a clumsy name to use in English, the movie translates this as just "Grandmother". While she is certainly related to Nausicaa (everyone in the Valley is related to each other) she is not Nausicaa's biological grandmother. To avoid confusion though, I will still refer to her as "Grandmother" in the description of the film.

 

Movie Manga
Both start out with Nausicaa exploring the Sea of Corruption (referred to as "the Wastelands" in the film) and finding the shed ohmu shell. Yupa is attacked by an ohmu, Nausicaa rescues him by turning aside the ohmu. Yupa shows Nausicaa the fox-squirrel and Nausicaa adopts it naming it Teto.  Nausicaa and Yupa return to the Valley of Wind for his visit.
(No such conversation.  In fact, the Dorok empire never appears in the movie.) Before they return to the Valley, Nausicaa tells Yupa that the Vai Emperor of the kingdom of Torumekia has called them (a vassal state) to support him in his war against the Dorok Empire.  Nausicaa is going in place of her father, Lord Jhil.
A celebration to welcome Yupa is held in the castle in the Valley in both versions but only the manga shows it, the film just refers to plans for it.
Later when alone with her father, the grandmother, and Yupa, the grandmother talks about the prophecy of the "blue-clad one" who will come to restore the connection between humans and nature. (No such conversation takes place.  The prophecy does not appear until near the end of PC vol. 1. Instead Nausicaa prepares to fly the gunship on a test flight prior to leaving for the front.)
Later that night a Torumekian brig carrying women and children hostages flies over the Valley. It is covered with bugs and is in trouble. While flying the gunship out over the Sea of Corruption, Nausicaa and Mito discover a Pejitei brig carrying women and children refugees. It is covered with bugs
Nausicaa flies off on her mehve to try and guide them to a safe landing. The brig crashes at the edge of the Valley. Nausicaa and Mito use the gunship to try and guide them to a safe landing. The brig crashes on the edge of the Sea of Corruption, away from the Valley.
In both versions everyone is killed, but Nausicaa finds the Princess Rastel from Pejitei in the wreckage before she dies.
Rastel (who has her hands chained and was a prisoner on the brig) asks Nausicaa to be sure the cargo on the ship is burned and destroyed. Rastel gives Nausicaa a "stone" and asks her to give it to her older brother. She tells them their city was attacked by Torumekian troops. This is odd since Pejitei was an ally of Torumekia. Rastel says the Vai Emperor wants that "stone", but must not get it.
A wounded ushiabu (bug) is left alive and could spread spores to the Valley. Nausicaa flies off and lures it back to the Sea of Corruption with an insect whistle. (no such event)
At the edge of the Sea of Corruption, she sees a single ohmu watching her. At the crash site a single ohmu appears and Nausicaa telepathically hears it crying for the death of the people in the brig.
Next morning, the Valley people go to destroy all the spores brought into the Valley by the crashed brig. They discover a huge mass that did not burn in the crash. Yupa recognizes it as one of the legendary God Soldiers, and it is still alive. Next morning, Torumekia troops explore the crash site looking for the "stone". Back in the Valley, Yupa, Jhil and Nausicaa discuss why Torumekia would attack Pejitei and guess the "stone" must be of the ancient technology dug up from the ground at Pejitei and must hold some great power.
The Torumekian troops, lead by Princess Kushana land in the Valley and attack. (No other members of the royal family are ever mentioned in the movie.) The Torumekian troops, led by Princess Kushana land on the edge of the Valley. Kushana is the daughter of the Vai Emperor.
They attack the castle and kill Jhil. When Nausicaa sees this she goes berserk, killing several of the troops singlehandedly. They turn the worm-handlers loose to look for the "stone". Nausicaa, singlehandedly stands up to them and orders the troops to leave the Valley.
As Nausicaa is about to kill another soldier, Yupa intervenes bodily and calms her enough that he can strike a truce with Kushana, who is watching all this. Kurotowa is the officer leading the attack on Lord Jhil here. As Nausicaa goes one-on-one with a soldier, Yupa intervenes bodily and calms her enough that he can strike a truce with Kushana, who is watching all this. (Kurotowa does not appear until later.)
Kushana stays and occupies the Valley. Nausicaa agrees to this to prevent more bloodshed. Kushana and her troops apologize and leave the Valley. (Jhil is still alive at this point in the manga.)
Kushana gives a speech where she tells the people her goal is to unite the lands of the Periphery and take back the lands covered by the Sea of Corruption. This is why she needs the God Soldier, to use as a weapon to burn down the Sea of Corruption. (no such event)
A key point here. In the manga, the Valley is a vassal state to the Torumekians and considered an ally (however uneasy the alliance). In the movie the Torumekians are an outside power who simply invade the Valley, allegedly for noble purposes, but still as an occupying force. They stay because that is where the God Soldier has crashed and it cannot be moved until after it is resurrected. (Miyazaki may have been thinking of the US' relation with Japan after World War II where the US stayed on as a military presence up to the present time. Certainly the image of the God Soldier reflects the mixed feeling many Japanese felt about being under the US' "nuclear umbrella" during the Cold War. On the other hand, in the film when Kushana gives her speech to the Valley people, she tells them her plans are "to build Oudourakudo here" [translated as "to construct a land without worry" in the Miho Nishida/Sue Shambaugh fansub script]."Oudourakudo" literally means "King's Road Paradise" which is the exact term the Japanese miltary used to describe their invasion/annexation of China and other parts of Asia during WWII. In any case, there are certainly innummerable examples in history of astronger nation overrunning a weaker one and claiming it was for a noble reason or greater cause.)
(Interesting point: to streamline the movie, no mention is ever even made about the Emperor or Kushana's brothers. There is only one reference to "the fools back home" who ordered her to capture the God Soldier. The episode of burning the water supply trees that are infested with fungus is pushed back until later in the movie.) The Valley people burn the ground where the Torumekian ship landed to destroy any spores. Kushana and her troops return to the occupied city of Pejitei. Nausicaa discovers the oldest tree in the Valley, the one protecting the water supply, is infested with fungus from the Torumekian brig and orders the tree destroyed. Back in Pejite Kurotowa reports to Kushana as her new military attache. She doesn't trust him and he apparently has some knowledge that her campaign is a trap set for her by her brothers who are out to destroy her.
(Back story to the movie: they had already captured the God Soldier and were taking it and Pejitei hostages back to Torumekia when the brig crashed in the Valley.) Kurotowa goes to see the reason for the Torumekian attack and capture of Pejitei: a still-living God Soldier in a excavation pit beneath the city. Kurotowa survives an assassination attempt by one of Kushana's men.
The Grandmother stands up to Kushana in front of all the Valley people. Tells about ancient attempts to take back the Wasteland which caused the Ohmu to spill out in a tidal wave ("Daikaisho") into the untouched lands. The spores they bring with them cause the Sea of Corruption to take root there and spread further. (no such event, although the explanation of the "Daikaisho" occurs later on in PC vol. 1, p. 212.)
When the Valley people find out that Lord Jhil is dead, they start to attack the troops. Nausicaa calls on them to stop, saying to please go along, there has been too much bloodshed already. (no such event)
Kushana plans to return to Pejitei, taking Nausicaa and four hostages with her to insure the Valley's cooperation while she is gone. She also decides to take the gunship. It is loaded onto the Torumekian brig. Nausicaa and five of the elder guards prepare to leave the next morning to fly to the rendezvous point with the rest of the Torumekian allies.
Yupa goes looking for Nausicaa and finds her secret garden in the castle basement. The manga version does a better job of explaining the significance of the fact that Nausicaa is the first one to discover that it is the soil and water, not the plants themselves, which cause the poisonous vapors.
Before she leaves, the young girls of the Valley give Nausicaa some chico nuts to take with her for food. The women of the Valley sew an armored vest for Nausicaa to wear under her shirt for protection. Some young girls give her chico nuts to take with her for food. However, this scene occurs just before the scene where Yupa discovers Nausicaa's secret garden.
The Torumekian brig takes off with Mito and Nausicaa riding with Kushana. The brig tows the glider with the other hostages from the Valley. Kurotowa stays in the Valley to command the occupation troops. Mito and Nausicaa take off in the gunship towing the glider) to head for the rendezvous point.
(no such event.) Yupa talks to Jhil, explaining Nausicaa's discovery.
(It is not clear where Yupa goes during this middle section. He apparently lays low so as not to arouse the suspicions of the occupying troops.) Yupa leaves the Valley quietly on his own after Nausicaa leaves.
Over the Sea of Corruption, the fleet of Torumekian brigs is attacked by Asbel (brother of Rastel) flying a Pejitei fighter. After joining forces at the rendezvous point over the desert, the Torumekian fleet leads them south over the Sea of Corruption. There they are attacked by Asbel (brother of Rastel) flying a Pejitei fighter.
The tow rope pulling the glider breaks and it glides down into the miasma and towards the Sea of Corruption. The gunship and the glider collide with debris from destroyed ships and the tow rope is severed. The glider glides down into the miasma and towards the Sea of Corruption.
(This happens later in the movie, see below) Nausicaa and Mito in the gunship go after Nausicaa orders the men to throw out the baggage and land. They will return to rescue them later. Then Mito and Nausicaa fly back up to the battle.
As Asbel continues attacking, he hits the brig carrying Nausicaa and Kushana. Nausicaa screams at him to stop shooting and, telepathically, he sees a brief image of Nausicaa. This slight shock gives the Torumekian fighter an opening and he shoots down Asbel's plane. It goes diving towards the Sea of Corruption. As Asbel continues to destroy the brigs, Nausicaa cries out to him. He sees her image telepathically as a young girl in a white gown. She tells him her name is Nausicaa and asks him to stop killing people. This distraction is long enough for the Torumekian fighter to shoot down his plane. It goes diving towards the Sea of Corruption.
Nausicaa, Mito and Kushana board the Valley's gunship and escape the burning brig just before it explodes. Kushana's brig survives the attack and she orders the surviving ships to regroup and continue flying south. Nausicaa and Mito abandon the fleet and return to retrieve the glider.
They fly down into the miasma above the Sea of Corruption and find the glider, still flying. Nausicaa tells them to throw out all the baggage and land the glider. They will land the gunship with them and reattach the tow line. (this has already happened in the manga)
Both planes land in a lagoon, but before they can reattach the rope to take off again, Kushana pulls a gun and tells them she is giving the orders. Nausicaa coolly turns aside her threat. Nausicaa and Mito locate the glider just before it lands in a lagoon and land the gunship beside it.
Ohmu appear and put out feelers to Nausicaa. She makes telepathic contact with them and has a dream sequence of being out in a field and seeing a large tree. She is suddenly brought awake and shouts out "That one is still alive?!" Ohmu appear and put out feelers to Nausicaa. She makes telepathic contact with them and discovers shocking news which she doesn't reveal. (Later we learn they tell her of their migration to the south.)
Nausicaa gets out her mehve and tells Mito and the men to attach the line, take off and circle. If she isn't back in an hour they are to return to the Valley. She flies off. Mito takes the gun from a stunned Kushana. She is now their hostage. Nausicaa gets out her mehve and tells Mito and the men to attach the line, take off and circle. If she isn't back in an hour they are to continue south and regroup with the rest of the Torumekian fleet at the southern encampment. She flies off.
In both the movie and the manga, the crash of Asbel's plane has angered the insects and they are attacking. Nausicaa flies in with her mehve, grabs him, and attempts to fly away.
The mehve is struck by the tail of a hebikera (long bodied flying insect) which knocks both Nausicaa and Asbel off. The mehve and both of them land in a sandbank. Nausicaa is unconscious, but Asbel is awake and tries to reach her. The sandbank is made of quicksand and both of them and the mehve sink out of sight. In attempting to escape, Nausicaa runs into a herd of ohmu and collides with them knocking Asbel off the mehve. Nausicaa tries to fly back to him as he lands on an ohmu, but she is attacked by a rashiab and knocked unconscious. The ohmu puts out its feelers to catch her in midair. Asbel thinks it is attacking her and attacks the ohmu to rescue her. The ohmu speaks telepathically to Asbel telling him they are sparing his life because "the little one" [Nausicaa] asks them not to kill him. They say they are no longer needed and are heading to the southern forests. After they leave Asbel realizes his mask is missing, but the air here is breathable.
A flashback occurs to a time when Nausicaa was about 5 or 6. Her parents and other adults take her to a grove of trees. Nausicaa has been hiding a baby ohmu in the trunk of one of the trees and tries to protect it. The adults tell her that insects and humans cannot inhabit the same world. They carry the baby ohmu away as she pleads with them not to kill it.
Nausicaa wakes up, meets Asbel and is amazed at the tranquility and pure air at the bottom of the forest. She realizes this is the secret purpose of the forests of the Sea of Corruption, to cleanse the polluted soil and air. Here in the heart of the old forest and beneath the layer of miasma, the air and soil have been regenerated back to their original unpolluted state.
(no such event) Asbel gets back the "stone" that Rastel had given Nausicaa for safekeeping.
Meanwhile, Mito and his men have landed and are hiding in the abandoned starship wreckage in the desert next to the Valley of Wind with Kushana as their hostage. Meanwhile Mito and his men have landed with the rest of the Torumekian fleet at the encampment southeast of the Sea of Corruption and near the border of the Dorok Principalities.
The troops have taken over the castle to house the developing God Soldier. Yupa returns (not clear where he has gone) and spies on it. (No such event although reminiscent of Kurotowa's trip to view the God Soldier described above)
Yupa is taken by the Valley children to the hiding place where Kushana is held. (No such event)
Kushana shows them that her arm (and more) were bitten off by an insect and that is why she is driven to destroy the forests and reclaim them for humans. (No such event, in the manga Kushana is only emotionally scarred and it isn't from the insects.)
Word comes that they have discovered fungi from the spores growing in the trees protecting the water reservoir. Meanwhile the people are clamoring for their tools and burners (that were confiscated by the troops) so they can destroy the fungus. Kurotowa agrees and then sends the remaining corvette off to Pejitei to bring back reinforcements. Unknown to them, Yupa and Mito fly off in the gunship to find Nausicaa. (This scene of the infected trees occurred earlier in the manga before Nausicaa left.)
They discover that the whole small forest is infected and must be burned. Blaming the troops for bringing the spores with them they turn and attack the Torumekians. (No such scene, the Valley people and the troops never battle one another.)
The remaining Valley men leave Kushana to return and help with the fighting. Once they are gone, she escapes and heads back to her troops. (No such event.)
The next morning, after Asbel fixes the mehve, they take off together on it.
Nausicaa and Asbel both have their masks to protect against the miasma. They refashion the single mask into two masks to use as they fly out through the miasma.
Nausicaa and Asbel fly off to Pejitei. When they arrive, they discover that the city has been destroyed by a herd of rampaging ohmu. Nausicaa and Asbel fly out of the Sea of Corruption....
A Pejitei brig with refugees lands next to the destroyed city and they go to meet it. ...and immediately run into a Dorok brig and are captured by the Doroks.
The occupants of the brig are from Pejetei, members of Asbel's clan. They explain that they enraged the ohmu into stampeding and destroying Pejitei to destroy the occupying Torumekian troops. They have already begun another ohmu stampede on the Valley of Wind to destroy the troops there and recapture the God Soldier. Nausicaa pleads with them to stop it, Asbel tries to help her escape, but he is knocked unconscious by one of the Pejitei men. They are both taken onto the Pejitei brig and it takes off. On the Dorok brig they met a priest ("Holy One") who speaks telepathically with Nausicaa, and seems to understand her "mission". They also meet Ketcha, a young girl who is his assistant.
Back in the Valley, Goll and his men capture one of the Torumekian tanks and hold off the troops while the rest of the Valley people retreat to the abandoned starship for safety. Goll and his men are ultimately captured. Kushana returns and takes back command from Kurotowa. (No such event)
(Variant of Mito and Yupa flying off in the gunship from the Valley to find Nausicaa mentioned above.) Back at the Torumekian camp, Mito and the others plead their case to be allowed to return to the Sea of Corruption to rescue Nausicaa. Kushana agrees, hoping to see Nausicaa again and recover the "stone". Mito and one of the Valley men fly off in the gunship.
On board the Pejitei brig, Nausicaa is held prisoner. Asbel's mother and another Pejitei girl come to visit her. They have her put on the girl's Pejitei dress so she and Asbel's mother can get past the Pejitei guards. On board the Dorok brig, a woman who lost a daughter to the Torumekian attack sees Nausicaa is only wearing an "underslip" and gives her the Dorok dress that used to belong to her daughter.
(No such scene. It is the Pejitei who are causing the Ohmu stampede.) Nausicaa and Asbel meet with the "Holy One", the spiritual and political leader of this particular tribe. (Note: The Dorok empire is a confederation of tribes, each of which is led by their own particular religious leader. The "Holy One" here is, in turn, subservient to the "Holy Emperor" who rules over all the tribes.) Nausicaa learns that the Doroks have enraged the ohmu to make them stampede and crush the Torumekian encampment. (The knowledge that the camp would be there came from the royal family of Torumekia; someone is out to destroy Kushana as a possible heir. In exchange for doing this, the tribe will be allowed to settle in the lands of the Periphery, i.e. Pejitei and the Valley of Wind.)
(No such scene. Variant of Nausicaa pleading to be allowed to stop the ohmu stampede before it reaches the Valley.) Nausicaa begs the "Holy One" to let her go to the Torumekian camp to stop this war, she is rebuffed.
Nausicaa and Asbel go to the cargo hold to retrieve the mehve so she can escape. Before she can leave the ship is attacked by the one remaining Torumekian corvette (the one Kurotowa sent to Pejitei). Asbel holds off the attacking troops so Nausicaa can escape. The Valley gunship spots and attacks the Dorok brig. Nausicaa pulls a knife on the "Holy One" and with Asbel's help she escapes on her mehve.
The Torumekian corvette leaves the brig, flying after Nausicaa in an attempt to shoot her down. She is saved when the Valley gunship appears. Mito shoots down the corvette. (No such event)
Yupa leaps to the Pejitei brig and helps subdue the remaining Torumekian troops on board. Nausicaa and Mito take the gunship (with the mehve in tow) and race to the Valley to sound the warning. The gunship retrieves Nausicaa and her mehve, then races back to Torumekian encampment to sound the warning of the oncoming Ohmu.
Back in the Valley Kushana has the starship surrounded, but holds off the attack on the chance that Nausicaa will return. She says she would have liked to have talked longer with that girl. She releases Goll and the others to go join the rest of the Valley people. On their way to the starship they realize the wind has stopped (apparently for the first time in anyone's memory). (No such event)
On the way back to the Valley, they spot a single Pejitei flying jar carrying a wounded baby ohmu. This is the bait the Pejitei are using to create the stampede. On the way back to the camp, they spot a single Dorok flying jar carrying a wounded baby ohmu. This is the bait the Doroks are using to create the stampede.
In both versions, Nausicaa bails out of the plane and uses her mehve to force down the jar and the baby ohmu at the edge of the Acid Lakes. (Obviously the Acid Lakes are in different locations, just outside the Valley of Wind between it and Pejitei in the movie, and inside the Sea of Corruption, but near the Torumekian encampment on the southeast side of the Sea of Corruption in the manga.) In both versions the gunship continues onward to warn the others.
Kushana and her men see the flares from the returning gunship and she orders the attack on the starship to begin. Before they reach the starship, Mito lands the gunship between the two groups and sounds the alarm about the approaching ohmu. (No such event, the gunship's warning to the encampment comes slightly later.)
Nausicaa is shot and wounded in the battle, but lands in the jar causing them to lose control and crash. The two Pejitei pilots are only knocked unconscious when they crash. The mehve flies off on its own. Nausicaa is not wounded, but the Dorok pilots and their flying jar crash on the shore of the Acid Lakes. The pilots are burned to death in the Acid Lakes. Nausicaa and the baby ohmu land on a small sand island in the lake.
Nausicaa recovers first and goes to comfort the wounded baby ohmu. Nausicaa tries to comfort the wounded baby ohmu but tells it there is nothing she can do. The ohmu touches Nausicaa with its feelers.
(No such event) Meanwhile the gunship reaches the encampment just ahead of the ohmu stampede. Most of the Periphery ships get airborne in time, but of the Torumekian ships, only Kushana's brig gets airborne. They start back to the Acid Lakes.
The baby Ohmu tries to move and Nausicaa restrains it. In the process her Pejitei clothes are soaked with blue ohmu blood. Nausicaa pulls the heavy gun out of the crashed flying jar and tries to shoot the baby ohmu to put it out of its misery. She fires but deliberately misses the ohmu. It's still alive and she can't bring herself to kill it. She tell it she will stay with it as it bleeds blue blood over her Dorok clothes.
It tries to enter the lake and Nausicaa stops it, but her foot slips into the lake and is burned. The baby ohmu uses its feelers to soothe the pain in Nausicaa's burned foot. They then see the herd of ohmu charging by in the distance without noticing them. They are so enraged they have lost their senses and are out of control heading for the Valley of Wind. She turns to see the herd of ohmu, now finished with their rampage, lined up along the lake's edge watching them. The baby tries to join them by swimming into the lake. Nausicaa physically stops it, but her foot goes into the lake and is burned. The baby uses its feelers to soothe Nausicaa's burned foot.
(No such event) The adult Ohmu try to enter the lake to rescue the baby, and are horribly burned. Nausicaa sends a frantic telepathic message to them to stop.
(No such event) Her message is so strong the Holy One in the Dorok ship hears it and orders the ship to stop.
Nausicaa gets the big gun from the flying jar and forces the Pejitei pilots to fly her and the baby ohmu and drop them in front of the stampede. The remains of the Torumekian fleet fly over and Nausicaa flies off in mehve and lands in Kushana's brig. Nausicaa convinces Kushana to use the plane to rescue the baby. With Nausicaa's navigation of the winds, the brig barely survives landing on the sand island. They begin loading the baby.
Kushana has ordered the God Soldier to be activated. As the ohmu approach, the God Soldier fires blowing away a huge number of them in what appears to be a small nuclear blast. However, more from the rear continue past the blast site and bear down on the troops and the Valley people. Kushana orders the God Soldier to fire again, but it melts and dies. (No such event. The God Soldier is still in its "larva" stage back in Pejitei. It is not until PC Vol. 4 that it is activated, but when that happens, it is Nausicaa who has possession of the stone, so the God Soldier "imprints" on her, obeying only her and calling her "mother". He then becomes a main character in the story and continues almost to the end of the manga.)
At the last possible moment, Nausicaa and the baby are dropped in front of the stampede where the troops and the Valley people can see them. The Holy One and Ketcha come flying upon the scene in a flying jar just in time to see the brig (now on the mainland) as Nausicaa and the wounded baby Ohmu emerge.
The stampede plows right over them, killing Nausicaa. However, this seems to drain the anger from them and they stop before any serious damage is done to the troops or the Valley people. The Pejitei brig with Asbel and Yupa arrive just in time to see the anger leave the ohmu. (Nausicaa is never in any danger from the ohmu. They have spent their anger in attack on the encampment.)
The ohmu form a circle around the baby ohmu and the lifeless body of Nausicaa. They pick up her body with their feelers and with the golden light from them, they heal her and bring her back to life. The ohmu pick up the baby with their feelers, then pick up Nausicaa with their feelers. They all join in, healing Nausicaa from her injuries with a golden light.
The Valley children describe to the blind grandmother the sight of Nausicaa dressed in blue and walking among the feelers as if she was in a field of golden grass. The grandmother recognizes this as the prophecized sign of the one who will restore the lost ties with the Earth. Ketcha describes the sight to the blind Holy One telling him that Nausicaa is dressed in blue and the feelers are so thick it is as if she was walking on a field of golden grass. The Holy One recognized this as the prophecized sign of the one who will restore the Earth.
The Ohmu return to the Sea of Corruption. Kushana takes her troops and leaves the The Pejitei people return to their city. (This is assumed, they never say this explicitly.) The ohmu tell Nausicaa they are heading further south, then leave. Nausicaa orders the Valley men to return to the Valley while she will continue with Kushana on her campaign further south. She wants to know what the ohmu are doing.....
Life returns to normal. Final image is of a chico sapling growing in the bottom level of the wasteland from one of the nuts Nausicaa dropped there. End of story. The saga continues for about another 700 pages.


Spring 1999. This table was compiled for Nausicaa.Net and for the use of the students in A&H 3300 at the University of Texas at Dallas. The comparison was written by Marc Hairston with help from TOYAMA Ryoko and ITO Nobutoshi. Thanks folks!