Karen J. Prager, Ph.D., A.B.P.P.
Professor of Psychology and Program Head for Gender Studies
Diplomate in Family Psychology
The University of Texas at Dallas
More Information About Dr. Prager's work
Recommended supplemental reading:
Helgeson, pp. 195 - 211.
Individual Consequences of Gender Stereotypes
Stereotypes become internalized by individuals and have consequences for their personalities, social experiences, and self-concepts.
Consequences are mostly negative.
Measurement challenges when examining characteristics of personality.
How do we judge?
What are some problems with trusting self-reports?
What problems might we have trusting other reports?
Helping behavior/altruismAre women more helpful than men?
Eagly & Crowley (1986) meta-analysis
Measured: actual helping behavior in experimental studies
Males more likely to help
Sex of recipient
Public vs. private
Year of study
SexualityOliver & Hyde (1993) meta-analysis.
DIFFERENCES IN SEXUAL ATTITUDES
Casual premarital sex
Modifier: gender x gender effect
Modifier time of study
DIFFERENCES IN SEXUAL BEHAVIOR
Multiple sexual partners.
Sexual satisfaction, kissing, oral sex
Laumann et al. (1994 study): studied over 3000 people aged 18 to 59
Frequency of thinking about sex
Where do (straight) men find all those partners if women report fewer partners?
A few active women?
A response bias?
DIFFERENCES IN VARIABILITY OF BEHAVIOR
Women’s behavior more variable. Why?
Baumeister (2000) – erotic plasticity.
Ambiguity of social climate
Women’s rights movement
Influence of other cultures
Effects on Self-concept: the way we view ourselves
Self-esteem: How do I evaluate myself?
Meta-analysis by Feingold (1994)
Locus of control: How much am I in control of outcomes in my life?
Attention from teachers?
A measurement artifact?
Different sources of self-regard for males & females?
Domain, value of domain, and self-esteem
We’ll get back to emotionality & self-expression when we talk about relationships.
Self-confidence: how do I evaluate my abilities?
Who predicts they will perform better overall?
Sex-typing of tasks: What are the effects?
Explanation: Is it more socially acceptable for girls to lack self-confidence?
Attributions for success & failure
Dimensions of success/failure attributions:
Impact on self-confidence of women?
Should we teach people more adaptive attributions?
Body ImageWho is less satisfied?
Who wants to be thinner?
Effect on mental health
Effects on Mental Health
Behavioral flexibilitySandra Bem’s studies in the 1970s: Flexibility & androgyny.
Hammering, playing with a baby, talking to a sad person.
Fear of femininity in males
Behavioral restrictions/fewer options
Role conflict in females: less than in the past