Karen J. Prager, Ph.D., A.B.P.P.
Professor of Psychology and Program Head for Gender Studies
Diplomate in Family Psychology
The University of Texas at Dallas
More Information About Dr. Prager's work
Students of Freud & his theory
Each retained aspects of theory & changed aspects
Similarities to Freud retained:
1. Emphasis on unconscious
2. Emphasis on the past -- early childhood experience
3. Emphasis on anxiety & defense mechanisms
Changes made to Freudís theory by other dynamic theorists
1. Increased emphasis on adulthood
2. Increased emphasis on ego functions
3. Increased emphasis on constructive behavior
alfred adler's psychodynamic theory
Highlights of theory:
First to emphasize interpersonal and social factors.
Proposed a model of mental health.
Emphasized the strength of the ego.
Structure of Personality
Instincts are modified by the social environment.
What is the social interest in Adler's theory?
Strength of the Ego
What is Finalism and Fictional finalism?:
How are they related to Ego Striving and Style of Life?
Striving for superiority:
Compensation for inferiority feelings vs overcompensation?
Inferiority feelings: Why is it healthy to grapple with them?
What are organ inferiorities?
Inferiority complex -- what is this? How is it different from inferiority feelings? In what way is it
a failure to achieve a healthy personality?
Style of life.
How do superiority strivings create a style of life?
What is the role of the ego in both superiority strivings & style of life?
Some styles of life are healthier than others, because?
Some styles of life are. . . mistaken (see these examples):
*Ruling type: focuses on dominating & controlling others.
Adler's Developmental Theory
What is the role of the family in personality development?
How important is early experience, and why or why not?
Family factors that affect personality:
CARL JUNG'S PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY
**He studied with Freud but they had a bitter, sorrowful break. Why?
**Formed his own society, the International Psychoanalytic Association
Highlights of theory
**Proposed a collective unconscious in addition to a personal unconscious
**Incorporated Eastern religion and philosophy into his theory
**Emphasized ego strivings over instinctual ones as central motivators of behavior
STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY
I. Libido -- how is his concept similar to Freud's? How is it different?
II. Parts of the Psyche (total personality)
1. selective attention and processing
2. feelings of continuous identity
3. a repository of attitudes: extraversion: outward orientation; introversion: inward orientation
4. ego functions
b. thinking vs. feeling
5. 8 ego types
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator--inspired by Jung's theory. What does it measure?
B. Personal unconscious
C. Collective unconscious
1. and language. . . ?
2. and symbols . . . ?
3. and archetypes?
Jungís Theory of Mental Health
I. Self-realization is the goal
A. Goals & development
B. Regression & development
C. Individuation and transcendence
II. Self realization is:
Balance and integration of persona & shadow, ego & unconscious, mind & body, anima & animus, individuation and transcendence.
**Developed his theory by working with and studying childrenís behavior
Highlights of Theory
**Strong role of ego
**Extended notion of environmental influence
**Extended developmental theory into a theory of the entire life cycle
Structure of the Personality:
Like & unlike Freud?
Role of ego?
Erikson's theory of development:
**Stages of development -- thematic: centered on critical preoccupations
Each stage a MILESTONE
** Epigenetic principle:
Trust vs. Mistrust:
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt:
Initiative vs. Guilt:
Industry vs. Inferiority:
Identity vs. Role confusion:
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Ego Integrity vs. Despair
KAREN HORNEY'S PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY
Highlights of Theory:
**Theory of interpersonal development of neurosis**Theory of social-environmental influences on personality
**Emphasized importance of gender socialization
Structure of the Personality
**Need for security and safety:
**Role of parents
**Balance vs. neurotic trends
Neurotic needs and trends:
Exaggerated, intense, unfulfillable
Neurotic trends are coping mechanisms:
Defensive & interpersonal
Neurotic trends come in four types:
Move toward others.
Move against others
Move away from others
**Healthy personality balances trends as situation demands
Role of the Social EnvironmentTwo important aspects:
"Flight from womanhood?"
Harry Stack Sullivan
Psychodynamic and Interpersonal in approach
Highlights of the theory:**Maintained Freudian concepts of anxiety and unconscious
**Emphasized interpersonal factors even more than Adler & Horney
**Self cannot be conceived without relationships
**Emphasized middle childhood and adolescence more than other theorists
Structure of Personality:Anxiety a powerful (negative) motivator that stems from interpersonal experiences
Primary defense mechanism: selective inattention:Personifications
Good-me & Bad-me & Not-meFalse personification of self: When does this occur?
Sullivanís Theory of Development:
Preadolescent epoch (9-12)
**Teaches how to form caring, sensitive relationships
**Relationships more like adults, pressure towards occupational selection
**Manifestations of early, maladaptive selective inattention manifested here.
Asked: Why would anyone join the Nazi party?
Highlights of Theory
**Avoidance of anxiety motivated behavior
**Cultural & political milieu influence personality
**Authoritarianism an "escape from freedom" (and its associated anxieties)
Structure of Personality
Three pathological strategies to avoid anxiety and to feel powerful
1. Authoritarianism & authoritarian personality.
3. Automaton conformity:
**Psychological health = embracing freedom
*Learn our true desires
*Allow for spontaneity
*Discover what we want to do & donít be overwhelmed by what we are supposed to do.
Compare & Contrast Neo-Freudian Theorists
General contributions and limitations of all psychodynamic theories
I. Profound impact on Western society & culture
II. Personality development begins in childhood
III. Invented the "talking cure"
IV. Power of unconscious processes. Behavior is multiply determined.
V. The "psychopathology of everyday life."
I. Parts of the theories cannot be scientifically refuted (is untestable).
II. The theories propose structures that cannot be observed or measured.
III. The theories lack parsimony.
IV. Freudís theory is excessively situated within one time and place.
V. The anatomical determinism has not been supported.