Karen J. Prager, Ph.D., A.B.P.P.

Professor of Psychology and  Program Head for Gender Studies

Diplomate in Family Psychology

The University of Texas at Dallas

More Information About Dr. Prager's work


Research on Intimacy

Processes in Couple Relationships 

Teaching and Professional Practice

Selected Papers and Publications


For Students:



Female-Male Comparisons: Lecture Outline


Sex Differentiation and Physical Functioning

The Sexual differentiation process

1. Genes & chromosomes

2. Sex glands

3. Sex hormones

4. Differentiation of internal reproductive tract

5. Differentiation of external genitalia

6. Differentiation of some brain areas

What are we looking at when we examine "biological factors?"

Genes and chromosomes

X & Y

Wolfian ducts

Mullerian ducts

"Indifferent gonad"

H-Y antigen.

Gonads & hormones

Gonads secrete sex hormones


Testosterone and other androgens

Mullerian-inhibiting substance (MIS)


Estrogens and progesterone

"bi-sexual potential"

Differentiation of internal reproductive structures

Differentiation of external genitalia

The Brain

Hypothalamus and hormonal cycling vs. non-cycling

Are brains fixed, in utero, into a "male" or "female" organization just the way genitalia are?

Effects on female rats of prenatal testosterone

gonadotropins and the pituitary gland

Sex of assignment

Chromosomal anomalies

Turner's syndrome

Klinefelter's Syndrome

Double-Y males

What is the effect of the Y chromosome on biological sex?

What have we learned from chromosomal anomalies about X & Y functions?

Androgen-insensitivity syndrome

Documented physical sex differences

When it is most likely that inherited or other physical sex differences affect sex differences in behavior?

Nature vs. nurture: What are four ways to ask this question?

Do Physical Sex Differences Have Implications for Behavior?

Girls with adreno-genital syndrome

What is the source of gender identity?

Pre-natal hormones?

Research in Dominican Republic

Transgendering & Transsexuals