The University of Texas at Dallas

Cynthia E. Ledbetter, Ph.D.

Science/Mathematics Education

Associate Professor,  Program Head


Break out of the Box! Break out of the Box! Break out of the Box!

Curriculum Vita

Contact Information | Courses | Publications | RESEARCH Interests

Please visit my "fun" site to find out about professional seminars, workshops, consulting - and a whole lot more!

Contact Information:


Recent Publications:

Research Design & Methodology Types

After Gay, L. and Airasian, P. (2000). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and application (6th ed.). Merrill: Columbus, OH.

Ledbetter, C.E. (2001). Research Design & Methodology Types.

Researchers – new and experienced – and others, will enjoy this interactive decision tree! Answer the chain of questions to determine the type of research methodology used for complete evaluation of other work. Review the printable MS Word version to determine the most appropriate research methodology to use for your work! Review the summaries (print-friendly version) for each research design and methodology type listed to verify your conclusions: Experimental, Causal-Comparative, Descriptive, Correlational, Historical, and Naturalistic Methods, along with Position Papers and Literature Reviews.

A Web (Page) That Works: What a Concept (Map)!

Nix, R., Ledbetter C.E., & Fraser, B.J. (2001).

A Web (Page) that Works: What a Concept (Map)!

Paper presented at the annual conference of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, St. Louis, MO, March 27, 2001.

This case study in science education supports the development of a new, Integrated Science Learning Environment (ISLE) to bridge the gap between the university classroom and field trip learning environments. The program modelled a constructivist paradigm to help teachers learn and apply science content by creating a web page. Their own unique school classroom learning environments further influenced this implementation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the ISLE in terms of promoting conceptual understanding, attitudes, and a constructivist classroom learning environment. Specifically, the course design addressed two major issues that not only challenge effective fieldwork, but are the key to effective design and integration of web-based media into the classroom learning environment: information overload and non-linear processing. The study is important in that it combines the use of concept maps to assess adult knowledge and understanding; the Teacher’s Attitude Toward Information Technology (TAT) survey to gauge experience and exposure to information technology; and a new version of the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES) written for adults to evaluate their perceptions of the university/field trip program. The results indicate that there are significant correlations among these instruments for both teachers with science and those with non-science backgrounds.

Ledbetter, C.E. (2000). Levels of Inquiry.

Unpublished manuscript, The University of Texas at Dallas. [On-line]. Available:


Please refer to Curriculum Vita for a more complete listing of publications and presentations.

Research Interests:

Learning Environments

Inquiry-based Science Activities

Misconceptions in Science

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All rights reserved. © 2000, Cynthia E. Ledbetter.