Software vulnerabilities are the root cause of a wide range of attacks. Existing vulnerability scanning tools are able to produce a set of suspects. However, they often suffer from a high false positive rate. Convicting a suspect and vindicating false positives are mostly a highly demanding manual process, requiring a certain level of understanding of the software. This limitation significantly thwarts the application of these tools by system administrators or regular users who are concerned about security but lack of understanding of, or even access to, the source code. It is often the case that even developers are reluctant to inspect/fix these numerous suspects unless they are convicted by evidence. In this paper, we propose a lightweight dynamic approach which generates evidence for various security vulnerabilities in software, with the goal of relieving the manual procedure. It is based on data lineage tracing, a technique that associates each execution point precisely with a set of relevant input values. These input values can be mutated by an offline analysis to generate exploits. We overcome the efficiency challenge by using Binary Decision Diagrams (BDD). Our tool successfully generates exploits for all the known vulnerabilities we studied. We also use it to uncover a number of new vulnerabilities, proved by evidence.

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