E Diamante Vent



Latitude: 15.942οN                  Longitude: 145.679οE             Depth: 127 m bsl

East Diamante vent is a shallow black-smoker, within a highly degraded caldera (Embley et al., 2007). The vent is hydrothermally active (Arriaga et al., 2014; Baker et al., 2008) and the observed fluid temperature are about 242°C (Embley et al., 2007). Although the vent fluid temperature is high, plume has a very low Δ3He anomaly (Resing et al., 2009). The vent is rich in microorganisms as well as macro organisms including bacteria, algae, clams, snails and worms (Embley et al., 2007).

Table 1: Operations history for E. Diamante vent

Ship/ Platform Operation Year Dive Number References
MGLN02MV R/V Melville/ ROV Jason-2 CTD tow-yo 2006 April J2-186 to J2-189, J2-191, J2-192 Submarine Ring of Fire, 2006

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution: ROV JASON/MEDEA: Operations Summary (note: click “Files- operations summary”)

NT09-08 R/V Natsushima/ Hyper-dolphin Not found 2009 June HPD#1011,1012, 1013, 1014, 1015 Natsushima cruise report
TN-153 R/V T. G. Thompson EM 300 multibeam, CTD tow-yo 2003 February – March  Not found Submarine Ring of Fire 2003
TN-167 R/V T. G. Thompson/ ROPOS CTD tow-yo, CTD vertical cast, EM 300 2004 March- April R787, R788 Submarine Ring of Fire, 2004


Table 2: Vent activity and host rocks

Activity and host rocks Reference
Activity Active hydrothermal activity Suárez-Arriaga, et al., 2014; Baker et al., 2008
Host Rocks Dacite Embley et al., 2007

Table 3: Vent fluid characteristics

Vent Fluids Reference
Temperature (οC) High T, 242οC Embley et al., 2007
ΔpH -0.035 Resing et al., 2009
Composition Sulfur and Gas, no Metals Resing et al., 2009
ΔCO2 (mM) 19 Resing et al., 2009
Particulate Fe (nmol/kg) 2.2 Resing et al., 2009
TDMn (nM) 3.2 Resing et al., 2009
TDFe (nM) 11.5 Resing et al., 2009
Δ3He (fM) 0.2 Resing et al., 2009
CH4 (nM) 2.5 Resing et al., 2009

* ΔpH, ΔCO2 – Measured relative to the regional background; Δ3He – Measured above the background.

Table 4: Vent Biology

General name Phylum References
Chemosynthetic microbes Embley et al., 2007
Banded butterfly fish Chordata Submarine Ring of Fire, 2006
Clams Mollusca Submarine Ring of Fire, 2006
Green Algae Chlorophyta Embley et al., 2007
Red Algae Rodophyta Embley et al., 2007
Snails Mollusca Submarine Ring of Fire, 2006
Worms Annelida Submarine Ring of Fire, 2006


Video Links:


  1. Baker, E. T., Embley, R. W., Walker, S. L., Resing, J. A., Lupton, J. E., Nakamura, K., de Ronde, C. E. J., Massoth, G. J., 2008. Hydrothermal activity and volcano distribution along the Mariana arc: Journal of Geophysical Research 113 (B8), 1-16.
  2. Embley, R. W., Baker, E. T., Butterfield, D. A., Chadwick, W. W. Jr., Lupton, J. E., Resing, J. A., de Ronde, C. E. J., Nakamura, K., Tunnicliffe, V., Dower, J. F., Merle, S. G., 2007. Exploring the submarine ring of fire: Mariana Arc- Western Pacific, Oceanography 20, 68–79.
  3. Resing, J. A., Baker, E. T., Lupton, J. E., Walker, S. L., Butterfield, D. A., Massoth, G. J., Nakamura, K., 2009. Chemistry of hydrothermal plumes above submarine volcanoes of the Mariana Arc. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 10 (2), 1-23.
  4. Suárez-Arriaga, M.C., Bundschuh, J., Samaniego, F., 2014. Assessment of submarine geothermal resources and development of tools to quantify their energy potentials for environmentally sustainable development. Journal of Cleaner Production 83, 21-32.

Website References:

  1. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution: ROV JASON/MEDEA: Operations Summary (accessed 11.09.2015)

Cruise Reports:

  1. Submarine Ring of Fire 2004 (accessed 11.09.2015)
  2. Submarine Ring of Fire 2003 (accessed 11.09.2015)
  3. Submarine Ring of Fire 2006 (accessed 11.09.2015)
  4. Natsushima cruise report NT09-08 (accessed 2/28/2017)
  5. NOAA Okeanos Explorer 2016 (accessed 2/27/2017)