Forecast Vent



Latitude: 13.392οN           Longitude: 143.920οE          Depth: 1500 m bsl

Vent Sites: Bart, Snail Scrum, Homer, Marge (InterRidge Vent Database Ver.3.3)

Forecast seamount is located in the southern Mariana Trough and it is a sediment starved arc type, active hydrothermal vent site (Gamo et al., 1997b). The fluid temperature is around 200°C (Submarine Ring of Fire, 2006) and are rich in CO2 (Gamo et al., 1997b).  Forecast biology consists of Epsilonproteobacterias, shrimp, limpets, crabs, sulfide worms, scale worms as well as snails. These animals are more similar to those at Alice Springs in back-arc than they are to Seamount X, NW Rota-1 in the arc (Submarine Ring of Fire, 2006).

Table 1: Operations history for Forecast vent

Ship/ Platform Year Dive Number References
MGLN02MV R/V Melville/ ROV Jason-2 2006 April J2-185 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution: ROV JASON/MEDEA: Operations Summary (note: click “Files- operations summary”)
Shinkai 6500 1992  Not found Gamo et al., 2004
Shinkai 6500 1996 November 353 Tsuchida et al., 2000

Table 2: Vent activity and host rocks

Activity and host rocks References
Activity Active Submarine Ring of Fire 2006
Host Rocks Basalt Gamo et al., 1997

Table 3: Vent fluid characteristics

Vent Fluids References
Temperature (οC) 220οC – 196οC Baker et al., 2008; Gamo et al., 1997, Gamo et al., 1995; Huber et al., 2010; Iwaida et al., 2005
pH 6.23-6.56 Huber et al., 2010
Composition Clear fluids with high temperature and high CO2 content Gamo et al., 1997
CO2 (mM) 42.1 Gamo et al., 1995
Mn (μM) 300 Gamo et al., 1995
Fe (μmol/kg) 11 Gamo et al., 1995
3He (μM) 0.4 Gamo et al., 1995

Table 4: Vent biology

General name Phylum Order/ Class Family Species References
Bacteria Proteobacteria Epsilonproteobacteria Huber et al., 2010
Crabs Arthropoda Submarine Ring of Fire, 2006
Limpets Arthropoda Submarine Ring of Fire, 2006
Scale worms Submarine Ring of Fire, 2006
Squat lobster Arthropoda Decapoda Galatheidae Munidopsis gracilis


Cubelio et al., 2007
Snail Mollusca Gastropoda Provannidae Alviniconcha


Gamo et al., 2004
Sulfide worms Submarine Ring of Fire, 2006


Video Links:


  1. Baker, E. T., Embley, R. W., Walker, S. L., Resing, J. A., Lupton, J. E., Nakamura, K., de Ronde, C. E. J., Massoth, G. J., 2008. Hydrothermal activity and volcano distribution along the Mariana arc: Journal of Geophysical Research 113 (B8), 1-16.
  2. Cubelio, S. S., Tsuchida, S., Watanabe, S., 2008. New species of Munidopsis (Decapoda: Anomura: Galatheidae) from hydrothermal vent areas of Indian and Pacific Oceans. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 88 (1), 111-117.
  3. Gamo, T., 1995. Wide variation of chemical characteristics of submarine hydrothermal fluids due to secondary modification processes after high temperature water-rock interaction: a review. In. Sakai. H., Nozaki, Y., (Eds.), Biogeochemical processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific. Terra Scientific Publishing Company (TERRAPUB) Tokyo, Japan, 425-451.
  4. Gamo, T., Tsunogai, U., Ishibashi, J., Masuda,H., Chiba, H., 1997. Chemical characteristics of hydrothermal fluids from the Mariana Trough. Deep-Sea Res. Spec. Volume: Deep Sea Research in Subduction Zones, Spreading Centers and Backarc Basins, 69-74.
  5. Gamo, T., Masuda, H., Yamanaka, T., Okamura, K., Ishibashi, J., Nakayama, E., Obata, H., Shitashima, K., Nishio, Y., Hasumoto, H., Watanabe, M., Mitsuzawa, K., Seama, N., Tsunogai, U., Kouzuma, F., Sano, Y., 2004. Discovery of a new hydrothermal venting site in the southernmost Mariana Arc. Geochemical Journal 38, 527-534.
  6. Huber, J. A., Cantin, H. V., Huse, S. M., Welch, D. B., Sogin, M. L., Butterfield, D. A., 2010. Isolated communities of Epsilonproteobacteria in hydrothermal vent fluids of the Mariana Arc seamounts: FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 73 (3), 538-549.
  7. Iwaida, C., Ueno, H., 2005. Ore and gangue minerals of seafloor hydrothermal deposits in the Mariana Trough. JAMSTEC Report of Research and Development 1, 1–12.

Website References:

  1. International cooperation in ridge-crest studies: InterRidge Vents Database Version 3; (accessed 11/19/2015)
  2. Submarine Ring of Fire, 2006 (accessed 11/19/2015)
  3. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution: ROV JASON/MEDEA: Operations Summary (accessed 11/19/2015)

Cruise Reports:

  1. Submarine Ring of Fire, 2006 (accessed 11/19/2015)