Ruby Vent



Latitude: 15.60417οN              Longitude: 145.57333οE                     Depth: 180 m bsl

Ruby is an active submarine volcano with multiple edifices (Baker et al., 2008) in the Mariana Arc. The most recent eruption was recorded in 1995 (Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program) followed by several early submarine (Embley et al., 2007). Chemical analyses of fluids revealed significant increases in TDFe, TDMn, pFe, CO2, 3He, and ΔpH. Venting at Ruby had much higher Fe:Mn ratio, suggesting that elevated Fe levels come from carbonic acid dissolution of the host rocks. The highest value of CO2:3He from Ruby is among the highest values reported at either subaerial or submarine arc volcanoes and clearly reflects the addition of CO2 and the greatest slab influence. About 96% of the CO2 venting at Ruby is from the slab source (Resing et al., 2009). In 2006 the expeditions made to Ruby found some living organisms such as limpets, crabs and sea lilies around the area (Submarine ring of Fire, 2006).

Table 1: Operations history for Ruby vent

Ship/ Platform Operation Year Dive Number References
MGLN02MV R/V Melville/ ROV Jason-2 Not found 2006 April J2-194 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution: ROV JASON/MEDEA: Operations Summary (note: click “Files- operations summary”)
TN-153 R/V T. G. Thompson EM 300 multibeam; CTD tow-yo 2003 February – March Submarine Ring of Fire 2003

Table 2: Vent activity and host rocks

Activity and host rocks References
Activity Active, Last erupted 1995 Lupton et al., 2008; Baker et al., 2008

Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism program

Host Rocks Basalt Stern et al., 1989; Resing et al., 2009

Table 3: Vent fluid characteristics

Vent Fluids References
Temperature (οC) Low T (<100οC) Embley et al., 2007
ΔpH 0.067 Resing et al., 2009
Composition CO2 and Alkalinity, Fe Resing et al., 2009
ΔCO2 (mM) 65 Resing et al., 2009
Particulate Fe (nmol/kg) 1568 Resing et al., 2009
TDMn (nM) 47 Resing et al., 2009
TDFe (nM) 1333 Resing et al., 2009
Δ3He (fM) 1.1 Resing et al., 2009

* ΔpH, ΔCO2 – Measured relative to the regional background; Δ3He – Measured above the background.

Table 4: Vent Biology


  1. Baker, E. T., Embley, R. W., Walker, S. L., Resing, J. A., Lupton, J. E., Nakamura, K., de Ronde, C. E. J., Massoth, G. J., 2008. Hydrothermal activity and volcano distribution along the Mariana arc: Journal of Geophysical Research 113 (B8), 1-16.
  2. Embley, R. W., Baker, E. T., Butterfield, D. A., Chadwick, W. W. Jr., Lupton, J. E., Resing, J. A., de Ronde, C. E. J., Nakamura, K., Tunnicliffe, V., Dower, J. F., Merle, S. G., 2007. Exploring the submarine ring of fire: Mariana Arc- Western Pacific, Oceanography 20, 68–79.
  3. Lupton, J., Lilley, M., Butterfield, D., Evans, L., Embley, R., Massoth, G., Christenson, B., Nakamura, K., Schmidt, M., 2008. Venting of a separate CO2-rich gas phase from submarine arc volcanoes: Examples from the Mariana and Tonga-Kermadec arcs. Journal of Geophysical Research 113 (B8), doi:10.1029/2007JB005467.
  4. Resing, J. A., Baker, E. T., Lupton, J. E., Walker, S. L., Butterfield, D. A., Massoth, G. J., Nakamura, K., 2009. Chemistry of hydrothermal plumes above submarine volcanoes of the Mariana Arc. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 10 (2), doi:10.1029/2008GC002141.

Website References

  1. Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program; (accessed 11/26/2015)
  2. Submarine Ring of Fire, 2006 (accessed 11/26/2015)
  3. Submarine Ring of Fire 2003 (accessed 11/26/2015)
  4. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution: ROV JASON/MEDEA: Operations Summary (accessed 11/26/2015)

Cruise Reports:

  1. Submarine Ring of Fire 2003 (accessed 2/27/2017)