SE Pacman Vent



Latitude: 19.178oN                  Longitude: 147.061oE             Depth: 3536 m bsl

Vent Sites: Baseball Mitt, Cerulean Springs (Fryer et al., 1999)

SE Pacman is a trench-proximal serpentinite mud volcano located in the Mariana forearc.  The active seeps along the SE flank of Pacman Seamount, the Cerulean Springs, produce thin brucite chimneys (Fryer et al., 1999). The Cerulean Springs are where the steepest gradients in chlorinity were measured; brucite chimneys had not previously been reported from fluid seeps on the sea floor (Fryer et al., 1999). Lower chlorinity and higher K and Rb of pore fluids from Pacman seamount indicates a slab source (Fryer et al., 1999). Similar to the other forearc mud volcanos, archaea dominate the SE Pacman ecosystem (Curtis et al., 2013).

Table 1: Operations history for SE Pacman vent

Ship/ Platform Operation Year Dive Number References
Not found SeaMARK II bathymetry data Not found Fryer et al., 1996; Fryer et al., 1992
Not found Seasat A Satellite Scatterometer (SASS) data Not found Fryer et al., 1996; Fryer et al., 1992
TN-154 Thompson ROV Jason-2 ROV JASON 2 2003 April J2-027 to J2-029,  J2-041 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution: ROV JASON/MEDEA: Operations Summary (note: click “Files- operations summary”)
YK03-07 Yokosuka/ Shinkai 6500 Not found 2003 September 784 YK03-07 cruise report

Table 2: Activity and Rock types

Activity and Rock types References
Activity Active venting Fryer et al., 1999
Rock types blue to bluish-green serpentine muds Fryer et al., 1999

Table 3: Vent fluid characteristics

Bottom seawater Vent Fluids References
Distance from the trench 60 km Hulme et al., 2010
Maximum flow (cm/yr) 13.6 Hulme et al., 2010
pH 8 10.8 Hulme et al., 2010
Composition Ca-rich,low-alkalinity, and low magnesium fluids in mud volcanoes near the trench. Wheat et al., 2008
Alkalinity (meq/kg) 2.3 3 IODP-MCME 366
Clorinity (mmol/kg) 542 302 IODP-MCME 366
Sulfate  (mmol/kg) 28 8.6 IODP-MCME 366
Mg (mmol/kg) 52.4 0.1 IODP-MCME 366
Ca (mmol/kg) 10.2 48.8 IODP-MCME 366
Na (mmol/kg) 466 222 IODP-MCME 366
Na/Cl (molar) 0.86 0.735 IODP-MCME 366
K (mmol/kg) 10.1 2 IODP-MCME 366
Li (μmol/kg) 26 1.3 IODP-MCME 366
Rb (μmol/kg) 1.37 1.2 IODP-MCME 366
Cs (μmol/kg) 0.0022 0.0113 IODP-MCME 366
Sr (μmol/kg) 90 313 IODP-MCME 366
Ba (μmol/kg) 0.14 0.63 IODP-MCME 366
B (μmol/kg) 410 87 IODP-MCME 366
Si (μmol/kg) 190 68 IODP-MCME 366
F (μmol/kg) 67 0 IODP-MCME 366
Mn (μmol/kg) 0 0.06 IODP-MCME 366
Fe (μmol/kg) 0 0.18 IODP-MCME 366

Table 4: Vent Biology

General name Phylum References
Archaea Crenarchaeota Curtis et al., 2013
Archaea Euryarchaeota Curtis et al., 2013


Video Links:


  1. Curtis, A. C., Wheat, C. G., Fryer, P., Moyer, C. L., 2013. Mariana Forearc Serpentinite Mud Volcanoes Harbor Novel Communities of Extremophilic Archaea. Geomicrobiology Journal 30 (5), 430-441.
  2. Fryer, P., Wheat, C. G., Mottl, M. J., 1999. Mariana blueschist mud volcanism Implications for conditions within the subduction zone. Geology 27 (2), 103–106.
  3. Fryer, P. (1996). Evolution of the Mariana convergent plate margin system. Reviews of Geophysics, 34(1), 89-125.
  4. Hulme, S. M., Wheat, C. G., Fryer, P., Mottl, M. J., 2010. Pore water chemistry of the Mariana serpentinite mud volcanoes: A window to the seismogenic zone. Geochemistry geophysics geosysems 11(1), Q01X09, doi: 10.1029/2009GC002674.
  5. Wheat, C., Fryer, P., Fisher, A., Hulme, S., Jannasch, H., Mottl, M., Becker, K., 2008. Borehole observations of fluid flow from South Chamorro Seamount, an active serpentinite mud volcano in the Mariana forearc. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 267 (3-4), 401-409.

Website References:

  1. JAMSTEC (Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science and Technology) E-library of Deep-sea Images (JEDI) (accessed 11/15/2015)
  2. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution: ROV JASON/MEDEA: Operations Summary (accessed 11/15/2015)

Cruise Reports:

  1. IODP Mariana Convergent Margin Expedition 366, unpublished IODP proposal (accessed 11/15/2015)
  2. Yokosuka cruise report YK03-07 (accessed 2/27/2017)