The Data

Vagus Nerve Stimulation during rehabilitation improves recovery of motor function in rats.

Hays et al., Neurobiology of Aging, 2016
Khodaparast, Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 2015
Meyers, Stroke, 2018
Ganzer, Elife, 2018
Pruitt, Journal of Neurotrauma, 2016
Hays, Stroke, 2014
Hays, NeuroReport, 2014
Ganzer, eLife, 2018

Vagus Nerve Stimulation during rehabilitation triples the number of neural connections.

Engineer, Frontiers in Neuroscience, 2019
Meyers, Stroke, 2018
Ganzer, eLife, 2018
Meyers, Submitted

Vagus Nerve Stimulation during stroke rehabilitation is safe and improves recovery.

Dawson, Stroke, 2016
National Clinical Trial NCT01669161
Kimberley, Stroke, 2018
National Clinical Trial NCT02243020

Vagus Nerve Stimulation during tone presentation reduced tinnitus severity and pathological neural activity in rats and in people.

Tyler, Scientific Reports, 2018
Vanneste, Scientific Reports, 2017
De Ridder, Neuromodulation, 2014
De Ridder, Otol Neurotol, 2015
Engineer, Nature, 2011

Vagus Nerve Stimulation during exposure therapy eliminated fear, hypervigilance, avoidance, and asocial behavior in a rat model of PTSD.

Noble, Translational Psychiatry, 2017
Alvarez-Dieppa, Neural Plast, 2016
Peña, Front Behav Neurosci, 2014

A next-generation nerve stimulator is now available for testing in patients.

The device on the left is:
• 50x smaller
• Battery-free
• Wireless
• MRI compatible
• Programmable

Sivaji, Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 2019

VNS increases the key molecules that promote synaptic plasticity, including:

Norepinephrine, Roosevelt , 2006
Acetylcholine, Nichols, 2011
Serotonin, Manta, 2009
Fos, Naritoku, 1995
FGF, Follesa, 2007
BDNF, Follesa, 2007
TrkB phosphorylated, Furmaga, 2012
Insulin receptor, Li, 2014
miR-210, Jiang, 2015
Neurogenesis, Revesz, 2008
Arc Protein, Alvarez-Dieppa, 2016
CaMKII, Alvarez-Dieppa, 2016
Neurexin, Alexander, 2017
Cadherin, Alexander, 2017
VDCC, Alexander, 2017
NMDA, Receptors:
GluN1, Zhang, 2002
GluN2B, Alvarez-Dieppa, 2016
Alvarez-Dieppa, Neural Plast, 2016
Insulin receptor, Li, 2014
miR-210, Jiang, 2015
VDCC, Alexander, 2017
GluN1, Zhang, 2002

Metaanalysis confirms that VNS + rehab promotes motor recovery over rehab alone.

Ischemic Stroke, Hays, NeuroReport, 2014
Peripheral Nerve Injury, Meyers, unpublished
Chronic Ischemic Stroke, Khodaparast, NNR, 2016
Unilateral Spinal Cord Injury, Ganzer, eLife, 2018
Ischemic Stroke, Meyers, Stroke, 2018
Stroke Patients, Dawson, Stroke, 2016
Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Hays, Stroke, 2016
Traumatic Brain Injury, Pruitt, J Neurotrama, 2016
Ischemic Stroke, Khodaparast, NNR, 2014
Ischemic Stroke in Aged Subjects, Hays, Neurobiol Aging, 2016
Bilateral Spinal Cord Injury, Ganzer, eLife, 2018
Ischemic Stroke, Khodaparast, Neurobiol Dis, 2013

Metaanalysis confirms that VNS + rehab promotes PTSD recovery over rehab alone.

Noble, Brain Stim, 2018
de Souza, Stress, 2018
Noble, Transl Pysch, 2017
de Souza, unpublished, long
Peña, Front Neurobehav, 2014
de Souza, unpublished, burst
de Souza, unpublished, timing
Peña, Biol Psych, 2012

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